TURNING


The modern technology of lathe makes it possible to manufacture work-pieces that were used to be produced only on milling machines in former times. The cutting data which can be adjusted when rotating are the cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. By optimizing these parameters, the following conditions occur: optimum tool life, improved chip formation, a required surface quality and the greatest possible voltage volume such as a small cutting force.

Depending on the geometric shape of the machined surface, we differ between:

  • Rounding-off, it creates the surface of a cylinder
  • Facing, it creates the base of a cylinder, a plane
  • Taper-turning, it creates the surface of a cone
  • Head thread, there arise areas along a helix
  • Profiling, the shape of the tool is transferred to the work-piece, for example for rounding corners with a quarter-circular cutting edge
  • Form-turning, any surface of revolution generated by the matching tool path


Form-turning can be further divided into:

  • Freeform-turning, this tool is either done by hand and placed on a support or the two cranks (for Z- and X-axis) are simultaneously operated manually. But a certain amount of practice is necessary, dimensionally accurate work-pieces can`t be made this way.
  • Post-form-turning, in this case the form of a pattern is scanned electronically or mechanically and transferred to the tool and thus to the work-piece
  • NC-form turning, the tool path is controlled by a program of a computer
  • Non-circular turning, formes surfaces which are not rotationally symmetrical, for example, the hexagonal head of a screw
  • Rear turning, the production of open space, for example in a mill blank